Viral Vector vaccines use another virus to generate antibodies to fight deadly pathogens i.e. it triggers an immune response by using a modified version of a different virus, known as a vector. For coronavirus they all use adenoviruses, a type of common cold virus, which attaches itself to cells and injects DNA that tells the cells to make coronavirus spike protein.
Following the production of spike protein, the immune system detects these invaders and creates antibodies. However, clearing all the myths around this type of vaccine, the US-based Center for Disease Control (CDC) clarifies by saying, “The genetic material delivered by the viral vector does not integrate into a person’s DNA.”
As of now, the vaccine developed by the Oxford-AstraZeneca uses viral vector technology.